Smart Behavioral Change
Changes in energy demand will likely affect greenhouse gas emissions, but the net effect depends on which energy sources are used for electricity and cooling.
To improve energy efficiency, it often costs investment up-front but in many cases this capital outlay will be paid back in the form of reduced energy costs within a short time period.
Energy performance contract is getting popular in the U.S. which requires no up-front investment. This makes efficiency improvements an attractive starting point for reducing carbon emissions.
To increase efficiency in non-domestic buildings often means focusing on ventilation and air-conditioning, in addition to lighting, heating and appliances. Many such buildings have achieved savings of around 25% after undergoing a retrofit to increase efficiency.
To lower carbon emissions on the supply side, for example, switching electricity generation from fossil fuels to renewables.
To lower emissions on the consumption side through reduced consumption and substitution, for example, do more walking to replace short-distance transportation or using a bicycle for a short journey instead of a car.